Sterilization: Types, Methods, Applications


Sterilization is a process of removing microorganisms from products, packaging materials, equipment, and machines.

Types of Sterilization

  • Heat Sterilization
  • Radiation Sterilization
  • Filtration

Heat Sterilization

There are two types of the heat sterilization process.

  • Dry Heat Sterilization
  • Moist Heat Sterilization

Dry Heat Sterilization

Dry heat sterilization is the most reliable process among the sections of heat sterilization. There are two major concerns of dry heat sterilization.

  • Easy to apply
  • Maximum death of microorganism can be achieved.

Factors Influencing Sterilization By Heat [Dry + Moist]

  • Temperature and time
  • Number of microorganisms present
  • Characteristics of the microorganisms
  • Types of material from which organisms have to be eradicated.

How Microorganisms Can be Killed

  • Denature of protein
  • Oxidation
  • Interruption of DNA synthesis
  • Interruption with protein synthesis
  • Disruption of cell membranes

How Sterilization Process Kill Microorganisms

  • Disruption of cell wall
  • Damage to the cytoplasmic membrane causes cellular content to leak out
  • Damage to viral envelope interrupts viral replication



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